Prof. Massimiliano Esposito (ME)’s research group specialises in non-equilibrium statistical physics and thermodynamics. Recent progress in this field is enabling development of a new theory, called stochastic thermodynamics, which provides a detailed understanding of how small fluctuating systems, such as molecular motors, chemical networks, or nanoelectronic devices, process energy and information. The group has recently started to develop non-equilibrium thermodynamics of open chemical networks. The theory applies to chemical networks modelled by chemical rate equations or by stochastic chemical master equations. This latter means of description is more accurate, but also more expensive computationally. It becomes essential when the concentrations of some chemical species become very low and as a result generate significant fluctuations. In the future, ME’s group plans to extend this theory to networks described by reaction-diffusion equations. Chemical reactions are often non-linear and are notorious for being able to generate complex behaviours such as CTs. The group is interested in the energetic and information aspects of these transitions.